Will President Trump Be On Money?

My son earns his allowance by doing chores. Each night he checks them off on a magnetic board, and then each Saturday we tally up how many chores he’s done, and he gets his cash. At this point he has to divide it up into three categories – “give”, “spend”, and “save”. “Give” is money he gives to charity (such as when he bought canned food for a food drive), “save” is money he is saving to buy a large toy, and ‘spend” is money he can just take when we go shopping and use to buy anything he wants. The idea is, obviously, to get him used to the idea of savings and giving to charity now while he’s young.

This time, he’s looking at the faces on the money (coins and dollar bills), and for the first time he’s asking quesitons about who the people on the money are. I’m explaining that, for the most part, they’re presidents. he thinks about that, and thinks about some things he heard at dinner last night, and considers the money he’s holding carefully. “Dad,” he finally asks, “will President Trump be on money?”

“Son,” I say, “I have no idea.”

Will he?

That’s an interesting question. The short answer, of course, is “not right now.”

Why not?

It’s against the law.

United States Code, Title 31, Section 5114(b) states that:

United States currency has the inscription “In God We Trust” in a place the Secretary decides is appropriate. Only the portrait of a deceased individual may appear on United States currency and securities. The name of the individual shall be inscribed below the portrait.

So, unless the law is changed, as of the date this article is published he doesn’t meet the legal requirements. President Trump is, after all, still very much alive.

How about after he dies?

In that case, it’s up to either the Congress or the Secretary of the Treasury. Under the question “Why were certain individuals chose to be pictured on our paper currency?” in the US Department of the Treasury Resource Center, we learn that:

As with our nation’s coinage, the Secretary of the Treasury usually selects the designs shown on United States currency. Unless specified by an Act of Congress, the Secretary generally has the final approval. This is done with the advice of Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) officials.

The law prohibits portraits of living persons from appearing on Government Securities. Therefore, the portraits on our currency notes are of deceased persons whose places in history the American people know well.

The basic face and back designs of all denominations of our paper currency in circulation today were selected in 1928, although they were modified to improve security against counterfeiting starting in 1996. A committee appointed to study such matters made those choices. The only exception is the reverse design of the one-dollar bill. Unfortunately, however, our records do not suggest why certain Presidents and statesmen were chosen for specific denominations.

This is expanded on in the Second Legal Tender Act, also sometimes referred to as the “July 11, 1862 Act of Congress”  Section 2 of that act states:

And be it further enacted, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and is hereby, authorized, in case he shall think it inexpedient to procure said notes, or any part thereof, to be engraved and printed by contract, to cause the said notes, or any part thereof, to be engraved, printed, and executed, in such form as he shall prescribe, at the Treasury Department in Washington, and under his direction; and he is hereby empowered to purchase and provide all the machinery and materials, and to employ such persons and appoint such officers as may be necessary for this purpose.

The line “in such form as he shall prescribe” is what gives the Secretary of the Treasury his (or her, although so far a woman has not served as Secretary of the Treasury) the power to decide who goes on US currency. This is a power granted to the Secretary by the US Congress, however, as Section 8 of the Constitution of the United States specifically grants the Congress the power “To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures”. They don’t tend to get involved with who is on money very frequently, but they have passed legislation specifying the design of coins. Nothing’s stopping them from doing it with paper money, as well.

With all that in mind,will Trump be on our money?


The portraits that currently appear on US paper currency were determined in 1929 and, despite an attempt to put Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill, they haven’t changed since that time. The youngest president to appear on US paper currency is Woodrow Wilson, and he died in 1924. I’m not expecting to see any changes any time soon. But paper currency isn’t the only form of currency out there. There’s also coins.

31 U.S. Code § 5112 governs “Denominations, specifications, and design of coins”. It covers quite a bit of territory and includes subsection (n) “Redesign and Issuance of Circulating $1 Coins Honoring Each of the Presidents of the United States”. Starting in 2007, $1 coins have been issued with the likeness of presidents – four each year, in order of presidential service. The law specifies that only dead presidents may be on the coins and that, once all of the dead presidents have been represented on the law will terminate and the coin design will revert to the “Sacajawea” dollar coin. The last president to appear on one of these coins was Ronald Reagan, on a coin issued in 2016.

That section of 31 U.S. Code § 5112 is now null and void, having served it’s purpose. But a similar law could be passed again and, if President Trump is dead by that time, he would qualify.


Who Is Your Favorite President Riding A Dinosaur?

“Dad?” my son asks, looking at me from the other end of the couch, “who’s your favorite president?”

I look up from my book. It’s out of nowhere, and pretty obviously a “dad, pay attention to me” kind of question, and it’s hit me out of left field. “Well, I don’t…” I start to say.

“Only he has to be riding a dinosaur!” my son adds. “And it can be any dinosaur you want, as long as it’s real!”

How on earth do you answer that?

We’re dying to find that out, really.

All right. So, clearly this is a two-part question. “Who is my favorite president?”, and then “what is my favorite dinosaur that someone could read?” How hard could this be?

The internet never fails to deliver

Who is your favorite president?

That… is a really good question. I could easily list my top two or three least favorite presidents, but I’ve never really thought about which one of them is my favorite. I will say I’ve got an unreasonable soft spot in my heart for Ronald Reagan, mostly because the 1978 Carter vs. Reagan election is the first one I really paid any attention to, and I was seven years old (the same age as my son), and my mom was a Reagan Republican and my dad was a Reagan Democrat. So, yeah. There was an influence there, because when you’re seven years old your parents are the smartest and best people in the whole planet.

My political views have shifted since I was seven. Still, it’s hard not to remember him fondly through the lens of childhood memory.

So, it’s Ronald Reagan?

I don’t think so, not really.  Despite that picture up there of him riding some variety of velociraptor.

Then who?

See, that’s tricky. It’s easy to look back in history, and see problems – often huge problems – with any or all of the presidents. They were, after all, human beings with an interest in becoming (arguably) the most powerful single man in the country (and, particularly in the late 20th century, the world). That sort of man tends to have a number of less-than-admirable characteristics. Particularly if you don’t agree with his policies.

But, clearly, I need to make a choice. So, after doing some thinking, I’ll go (this time, at least) with Lyndon B. Johnson because of the things he accomplished as president.

Lyndon B. Johnson?

Lyndon Johnson was the 36th president of the United States, born August 27, 1908 near Johnson City, Texas. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1937, served in the Navy in World War II, and then was elected to the Senate in 1948 (becoming the Senate minority Leader in 1953, and then the Senate Majority Leader in 1954). He served as John F. Kennedy’s running mate in 1960, and became president on November 22, 1963 after President Kennedy was assassinated. As president, he ran again and was reelected with 61% of the popular vote.

What did he do, to earn the position of my current favorite president? Well, here’s what his bio on Whitehouse.gov says:

First he obtained enactment of the measures President Kennedy had been urging at the time of his death–a new civil rights bill and a tax cut. Next he urged the Nation “to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man’s life matches the marvels of man’s labor.” In 1964, Johnson won the Presidency with 61 percent of the vote and had the widest popular margin in American history–more than 15,000,000 votes.

The Great Society program became Johnson’s agenda for Congress in January 1965: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, removal of obstacles to the right to vote. Congress, at times augmenting or amending, rapidly enacted Johnson’s recommendations. Millions of elderly people found succor through the 1965 Medicare amendment to the Social Security Act.

Johnson also signed the Outer Space Treaty in January 1967, banning the use of nuclear weapons in earth orbit, on the moon, on other planets, and in deep space. He further signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty in 1968, committing the US to a policy of prohibiting the transfer of nuclear weapons to other nations, and began the negotiations that returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.

Pretty awesome, in my opinion, but not perfect. He dragged out the Vietnam War as well, and sent US Marines into the Dominican Republic to support the leader of a coup against the leaders of a coup against the democratically elected president of that country, when the people of that country rose up against the leaders of the coup. Neither of those things were what you’d call good things, but any president you care to name will have similar blemishes on his record – with the possible exception of William Henry Harrison, who didn’t manage to serve long enough to do anything particularly bad. As president, at least.  So, at this time, I’ll say Johnson still did some pretty good things for the country and say he’s my (current) favorite.

Fair enough. Now, what about dinosaurs?


This is even trickier, because I love dinosaurs. All of them. Fortunately, I can narrow the field a little. The question, after all, states that the president has to ride the dinosaur, so I can rule out something like microraptor. The four wings are pretty cool, but it’s the size of a smallish chicken. You’d need hundreds of the things pulling a chariot, and that loses something quickly.

Actually, I tell a lie. It’s not tricky in the slightest. Because, no matter what, my favorite dinosaur is and always has been the Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Ah. The Tyrant Lizard King.

Oh, yeah.

Tyrannosaurus was always my favorite, from an early age. I mean, sure. I liked Triceratops and Stegosaurus as well, and I love some of the new dinosaurs that have been found over the past few decades, and Deinonychus caught my attention because my very first ever issue of National Geographic had a big article about the fossils of that brand new (to me, at least) dinosaur. But, at the end of the day, the idea of being a massive bipedal carnivore named the Tyrant Lizard King was awesome to my youthful mind and that feeling has never gone away.

Tell us about it.

Tyrannosaurus rex, based on recovered specimens, was a massive bipedal carnivore. Like, 12.3 meters (40 feet) long, 3.66 meters (12 feet) tall at the hips, and anywhere from 8.4 to 14 metric tons in weight. It was one of the largest land predators ever, and most paleontologists agree that it was an active predator that – like modern active predators – wouldn’t turn down the opportunity to chase other animals away from carrion and chow down as well. Their skulls are nearly as long as I am tall (I’m 6′ 5′ and their skulls were 5 feet long), and their teeth were foot long “lethal bananas”.

Well, maybe not every single tooth. But they still had some giant teeth.

They probably had feathers as well.

“I’m an utterly FABULOUS Tyrant Lizard King, baby!”

Yes, yes, I’m aware of the recent paper in Biology Letters (Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution), indicating that they had scaly skin.  Early tyrannosauroids did have feathers, but the abstract states that “extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian”(the Albian being a stratigraphic layer and a period of time roughly 113 to 100 million years ago).  So, it’s unlikely at this point that T. rex was that fabulously fluffy thing in the image above, but the Smithsonian article on the paper (since the paper itself is paywalled) states that the authors indicate that T. rex still had plumage on it’s back.  Much more punk than New Wave, in other words. Still, I like to imagine them as 12 meter birds of paradise – which tells you everything you need to know about the way my mind works.

Which means..?

In answer to my son’s question, let’s saddle up Lyndon B. Johnson on a fabulous black and electric blue feathered Tyrannosaurus rex and do an elaborate ritual dance to celebrate the passage of the Civil Rights Act.

Who Was The President When You Were Little?

Politics, it seems, is a thing we just can’t quite avoid. My son’s old enough to start noticing when the news is on, or when my wife and I and our friends talk about politics, and he’s aware of who the President is. He’s almost seven, after all. Which is something I have to keep reminding myself. But one day, while we’re sitting on the couch, he looks at me. “Dad? Do you remember who was President when you were little?”

“Yes,” I told him. “The first President I remember was a man named Jimmy Carter. He was a farmer, and then a governer, and then the President. And now he helps people who don’t have houses, by helping them build their own house.”

He thought about that. “Was he nice?”

“I think so,” I answer. “He seemed nice.”

This’ll be different.

Yeah. But the name of the blog is “Things My Son Asks”. Not “Science Things My Son Asks.” So, here we go.

Who were the Presidents when you were little?

Let’s see… I was born in 1971. Richard Nixon was President from 1969 to 1974, so I was born during the Nixon Administration. Which, I’ll be honest here, is not something I recall. Really, the first President I remember is Jimmy Carter. But here is the list of Presidents from my lifetime:

  • Richard Nixon (1969 – 1974)
  • Gerald Ford (1974 – 1977)
  • Jimmy Carter (1977 – 1981)
  • Ronald Reagan (1981 – 1989)
  • George H. W. Bush (1989 – 1993)
  • Bill Clinton (1993 – 2001)
  • George W. Bush (2001 – 2009)
  • Barack Obama (2009 – 2017)
  • Donald Trump (2017 – )

Now, “little” is an ambiguous sort of statement. But, honestly, we can probably assume it means single-digit ages. I’ve never really heard a 10 year old get described as a “little boy”, after all. So, based on this reasoning, Nixon, Ford, and Carter were the Presidents when I was “little”. Let’s learn a little more about them.

Must we?

Yes, we must. Reciting a list of names isn’t the same thing as knowing who the Presidents were, after all. And fortunately, the White House web site has a short biography of each of the Presidents.  There are all kinds of other sources as well.

Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon was born in California in 1913, making him the third President of the United States to be born in the 20th century (his predecessor, Lyndon Johnson, was born in 1908, and John F. Kennedy was born in 1917). He was a “birthright Quaker” (meaning that his parents were Quakers and so he automatically became one), but still served in the Second World War as a Naval officer – ultimately rising to the rank of Commander. He was elected to Congress in 1946 (where he was a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee) and then to the Senate in 1950, and then served as Dwight Eisenhower’s Vice-President from 1953 to 1961. He ran for President in 1960 and lost to John F. Kennedy, then ran again and won in 1968.

His Presidency produced the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty with the Soviet Union, an end to American involvement in Vietnam, and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. The most famous event in his administration, however, was Watergate – which ended up forcing him to resign to avoid impeachment for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress.

Gerald Ford

Gerald Ford was born in Nebraska in 1913, as Leslie Lynch King Jr. His mother left his biological father 16 days after he was born, because the senior Leslie King was abusive, and moved to Illinois. He was renamed Gerald Rudolff Ford Jr in 1916, after his mother married his adoptive father (Gerald Rudolff Ford). He served in the US Navy from 1942 to 1945, leaving service as a Lieutenant Commander, then settled in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1949, and remained in the House until he was appointed Vice President by Richard Nixon in 1973, to fill the gap created by the resigning Spirow Agnew. Then, when Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 he became President.

As President, he is most famous for ardoning Richard Nixon. He also created a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War draft dodgers and military deserters,allowing them to avoid criminal charges and a change in discharge status (if appropriate) if they completed a two year term of public service. He also has the shortest term in office of any President who didn’t die in office.

Although he wasn’t elected to the office, Gerald Ford ran for reelecton (election?). He defeated Ronald Reagan for the Repbulican Party nomination, but lost to Jimmy Carter in the general election.

Jimmy Carter

James “Jimmy” Carter was born in Georgia in 1924, the son of a relatively prosperous merchant and farmer. Unlike his predecessors he didn’t serve in the second World War, but he did enter the US Naval Academy in 1943, graduated in 1946, and remained in the Navy until his dicharge as a Lieutenant in 1953 after the death of his father. He inherited his father’s farm but no money, and thanks to a drought his first year managing the farm ended up living in subsidized housing while trying to get the farm up and running once more.

He was elected to the Georgia Senate in 1963, winning after he challenged a fradulent vote count which resulted in a special election. He served in the State Senate until 1967, and ran for Governor in 1966 and 1970. He was elected in 1970, and served as Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975, then ran for President and was elected in 1976.

President Carter’s administration is probably best remembered for an energy crisis (I remember sitting in long lines with my mom while she waited to fill the tank on our station wagon) and the Iranian hostage crisis (52 American citizens held in the US Embassy in Tehran for 444 days). He also gave control of the Panama Canal to Panama, helped negotiate peace between Egypt and Israel, and signed the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. These days he’s probably better known for his establishment of the Carter Center (which is working to eliminate parasitical diseases like Guinea worm and river blindness) and his work with Habitat for Humanity (which, despite what I thought, he didn’t create).

So, there you go. An extremely short capsule biography of the men who were President when I was little.

We Don’t Have To Listen To Him, Do We?

I generally tend to avoid politics as much as possible on this blog, if for no other reason than the fact that my son generally asks questions that fall into the realm of science. The “why does that glow?” and “do porcupines eat poop?” type of questions. He is, after all, six. Six year olds aren’t generally the most politically active demographic in the United States. But, they do pay attention to what is going on around them, and my family was not precisely what you would call “Trump supporters”. Far from it, in fact.

Relax. This isn’t going to be some sort of political rant. Like always, I’ll be answering a question or two that he asked. But, as always, I try to provide some context for the question.

we were not a happy husband and wife the day after the election. Near the end of the day, while we’re going through the family nighttime ritual of reading stories and talking about what we’re grateful for, my son looks at my wife. “We don’t have to listen to him, do we?”

The President of the United States

Contrary to popular belief, the United States is not a democracy. It is a democratic republic. And there is a difference of sorts. A democracy is any form of government in which the people exercise direct authority over the government. A republic is a subset of a democracy, in which the people elect officials to represent them and exercise power for them. The President of the United States is one of those elected officials.

The powers and the responsibilities of the President of the United States are spelled out in Article II, Sections 2 and 3 of the Constitution of the United States:

Section Two

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section Three

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

As the head of the executive branch of the US government, the President can also issue executive orders, which “help officers and agencies of the executive branch manage the operations within the federal government itself. Executive orders have the full force of law when they take authority from a legislative power which grants its power directly to the Executive by the Constitution, or are made pursuant to Acts of Congress that explicitly delegate to the President some degree of discretionary power”. These orders, like laws, are subject to judicial review and can be struck down if they are not supported by the law or the Constitution.

So, in brief, the president’s not a dictator and we don’t have to listen to him. But whoever the president is, he’s a powerful man who can issue orders that have the force of law. He should be listened to, whether you agree with him or not, but he should also listen. Because, for all his power, he still answers to the people.

The conversation with my son continued.  “It’s… complicated,” I tell him.

He gives me that baffled look he’s perfected. After all, he’s six. The world is pretty black and white to him. So, I try to explain. “You know how we’ve talked about how boring it would be if everyone liked exactly the same thing?”

He nods.

“Well,” I continue, “you know mommy and daddy didn’t vote for Mr. Trump. We didn’t think he’d be a good president. But, a lot of people did. Because not everyone likes the same thing, and they don’t always agree on what the best thing for our country is.”

“But why does he have to be president?” my son asks.

Electing a President

Electing the President of the United States is not quite as simple a process as “everyone casts a vote, and the candidate with the most votes wins”. After all, as of this election it appears that there have been five presidents elected to office without winning a majority of the popular vote: John Quincy Adams, Reutherford Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, George W. Bush, and (based on preliminary reports) Donald Trump.

How does that work?

Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution describes the procedure for electing the president:

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

In other words, it is the Electoral College that chooses the president. Unless they deadlock, and then the House of Representatives chooses them. The next obvious question is, I think, what on earth is the popular vote for? And that answer is a little complicated.

First, on a state level, each political party chooses their Electors based on whatever rules that party has in place. This is not a contradiction of the Constitutional rule requiring “each State” to appoint the Electors, because at this point the election hasn’t even been held. This is just the different political parties stating who they want the Electors to be.

Next, the election happens. After the popular vote is counted, the majority of states simply inform the victorious party that their Electors have the job. The only exception is Nebraska and Maine. As the National Archives and Records Administration explains, “[i]n Nebraska and Maine, the state winner receives two Electors and the winner of each congressional district (who may be the same as the overall winner or a different candidate) receives one Elector. This system permits the Electors from Nebraska and Maine to be awarded to more than one candidate.”

Personally, I like the method used by Nebraska and Maine.

There is no Constitutional provision or Federal law that requires the Electors to vote for the popular winner from their state (or at a national level). In theory, when the Electors cast their votes for the 2016, they could vote me into office as the next President of the United States. However, 24 states and the District of Colombia have laws requiring Electors to cast their votes for a specific candidate. Michigan, North Carolina and South Carolina state law automatically cancels the Elector’s vote and replaces them if they try this, though. New Mexico, Oklahoma, and South Carolina also consider it a criminal offence to do this. Also, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Washington state will fine the Elector for pulling this. So, I’m not likely to be getting sworn in as the 45th President on January 20.

The conversation continued. “Because he was elected,” I say, casting about for an explanation. “It’s like when you play a game. Everybody plays, but some people win and some people lose. Mr. Trump won the election, so he’ll be president.”

“Oh,” my son says.

“And now,” I continue, “although mommy and I didn’t vote for him, we both wish him the best. Because a lot of people think he’ll be a good president, and we hope he will be too.”

“That’s nice,” my son decides.

“You know what’s cool, though?” I tell him.


“See, we’re Americans. That means we don’t have to agree with him, just because he’s the president. We hope he’ll be a great president, and I’m sure that he’ll do what he thinks is right. But…” I grin. “We should still do what we think is right. And if we don’t agree with him, we can work to change his mind.  And if he doesn’t, we can work to choose a new president in the next election.”

“Yeah!” my son says. Then he looks around. “Can we play Star Wars now?”